Qualified from King’s College, Cambridge, and St Thomas’ Hospital. After vocational training in Watford, he became a principal in general practice in Abbot’s Langley, Hertfordshire, from 1974 to 2003. He was a trainer and course organiser with the Watford Vocational Training Scheme for many years, an MRCGP examiner for 20 years, and Convenor of the RCGP’s Panel of Examiners from 1997 to 2002.
Intra-uterine events are not remembered in speciﬁc visual images or words. But – if to remember means to be affected by the past – they are remembered nevertheless. They are perpetuated in the form of personality traits, as determinants of prevailing moods and attitudes; they are remembered in dreams, in behaviour patterns under stress, in aspirations and vulnerabilities. People are shaped – not exclusively, not inevitably, but nevertheless in some fundamental ways are shaped – by the things that happen to them before they are born.